The National Organization for Women was founded on June 30, 1966 by a group of activists who wanted to end sexual discrimination. Women all across the world have been encouraged to take back their voices by speaking out against sexual assault crimes through Take Back the Night. TBTN is a national women’s march where women protest sexual assaults. Women and men are allowed to share their stories and their stories will be kept confidential within their groups. They have a candlelight vigil and keynote speakers. This movement has made the concept of rape and how relevant it is in modern society a hard thing to ignore. Feminism is significantly more popular than it has ever been. The Feminine Mystique was a book written by Betty Friedan in 1963 and is credited for sparking the second wave of feminism within the US. It all started when she conducted a survey for her former classmates at their reunion and found out that none of them were happy being housewives, and this prompted her to research for her book. Roe, a Texas resident, wanted to end her pregnancy through abortion. Texas law would not allow abortions except to save the pregnant woman’s life. The court ended up voting a 7-2 and gave a woman total autonomy over the pregnancy during the first trimester.
The NAACP is the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. It’s a civil rights organization in the US formed in 1909 by W. E. B. Du Bois as a bi-racial organization to advance justice for African Americans. The mission was to ensure political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination. The SNCC is the Student Nonviolent Coordination Committee and was one of the most important organizations of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. It emerged from a student meeting organized by Ella Baker held at Shaw University in April 1960. The summer of 1964 was known as the Freedom Summer and it was a voter registration project in Mississippi, part of a larger effort by civil rights groups such as the Congress of Racial Equality and the SNCC. The SCLC is the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and is an African-American civil rights organization. It is closely associated with its first president, Martin Luther King Jr, and had a large role in the American Civil Rights Movement. Freedom Riders are a group of northern idealists active in the civil rights movement. The Freedom Riders, which included both blacks and whites, rode buses into the south in the early 1960s in order to challenge racial segregation. Sit ins were common on college campuses and they are the act of a group of people occupying a space in a form of protest. The Montgomery bus boycott was a seminal event in the Civil Rights Movement, and was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama. University of California v Bakke was a court case in which Allan Bakke, a 35 yr old white man, had applied twice for admission to the University of California Med School at Davis and he was rejected both times. The school had reserved spots for minorities, and Bakke had a better GPA and better test scores, so the court and chief justi ruled in an 8-1 decision for bakke.
Civil Rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. was shot by a confirmed racist and small-time criminal named James Earl Ray on April 4th, 1968. Ray shot MLK because King was a very prominent Civil Rights leader and Ray was completely opposed to the Civil Rights movement. The King assassination riots, aka the Holy Week Uprising, was a wave of national civil disturbance following the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. They were considered the largest wave of social unrest the US experienced since the Civil War. Some of the biggest riots took place in Washington DC, Baltimore, Chicago, and Kansas City. Robert F. Kennedy was killed shortly after midnight on June 5, 1968 in Los Angeles, California. It was after winning the California and South Dakota primary elections for the Democratic nomination for the President of the United States that he was shot while exiting through the hotel kitchen immediately after he had left the podium. Sirhan Sirhan, a 24 year old Palestinian/Jordanian immigrant was convicted of Kennedy’s murder and served a life sentence for the crime. Kennedy stood on a platform of racial equality and economic justice, non-aggression in foreign policy, decentralization of power and social improvement and just like with King’s assassination, there were people still against civil rights and they didn’t Kennedy to progress with the movement. In 1968, the Democratic National Convention protests occurred. Tens of thousands of Vietnam War protesters battled the police within the streets while the Democratic Party fell apart over an internal disagreement concerning its stance on Vietnam. These protesters were anti-war and gathered to show their support for McCarthy and the US withdrawl of troops from Vietnam.
Lyndon B. Johnson created “The Great Society”, a set of domestic programs in the US. The main goal was to eliminate poverty and racial injustice. This “Society” created new major spending programs that addressed education, medical care, urban problems, rural poverty, and transportation. Medicare is a federal health insurance program for people who are 65 or older, certain younger people with disabilities, and people with End-Stage Renal Disease. It is primarily funded by general revenues (31%), payroll taxes (38%), and beneficiary premiums (13%).
President John F. Kennedy was shot on November 22, 1963 by Lee Harvey Oswald while riding in a limo during a parade. Once Kennedy had been pronounced dead, Lyndon B. Johnson took the oath of office and became the next president. Johnson was considered both a civil rights hero and a racist. He commonly threw around the “n-word” in Senate cloakrooms and staff meetings. However, Johnson did get the Civil Rights Act of 1957 &1964 passed. MSNBC states “the segregationists would go to their graves knowing the cause they’d given their lives to had been betrayed, Frank Underwood style, by a man they believed to be one of their own.” regarding the way Johnson handled Civil Rights. This act made it possible to kill Jim Crow, and the black citizens were fully able to vote, making the United States truly a democracy. Johnson lifted racist immigration restrictions designed to preserve a white majority. JFK had originally been working on the Civil Rights Act of 1964, but unfortunately, he died before it got passed.
Earl Warren was the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from October 4th, 1953 until 1969. When Warren became Chief Justice, the court had been debating very important topics at the time, and Warren handled this with stride. His court addressed issues like school desegregation, separation of church and state, and freedom of expression. His court ended school segregation and they advanced freedom. Brown v Board of Education was a case concerning the issues of school segregation. African Americans argued that this violated the 14th amendment of “All Men Are Created Equal”. Chief Justice Warren and his court unanimously decided that “separate but equal” facilities were “inherently unequal” and stated that school can no longer be segregated. Clarence Earl Gideon had been convicted of a felony within a Florida state court and requested to be appointed a lawyer, but the court did not follow through. Gideon was forced to represent himself and ended up being found guilty and sentenced to 5 years in prison. He filed a habeas corpus petition in the Florida Supreme Court and argued that his constitutional right to being represented by legal counsel had been violated. Justice Hugo L. Black and his court had a unanimous decision that Gideon was correct, and that the courts need to be consistent with the Constitution to require state courts to appoint attorneys. In 1961, MO Sims, David Vann, John McConnell, and other voters from Jefferson County, Alabama challenged the state legislature. Each county in Alabama was supposed to have at least one representative. The Court decided 8-1 that the Equal Protection Clause needed to stay consistent and continue to provide at least one representative per county. Griswold was the Director of the Planned Parenthood League of Connecticut, she and the Medical Director gave information, instruction, and other medical advice to married couples concerning birth control. They ended up getting convicted under a law which criminalized giving out counseling and other medical treatment to married persons for preventing conception. The Court voted a 7-2 decision and Griswold ended up winning. Ernesto Miranda was arrested in his house and brought to the police station where he was questioned by police in connection with a kidnapping and rape. Despite the objection of the defense attorney, the written confession of Miranda was admitted into evidence at trial. The police officers did end up admitting that they did not tell Miranda of his right to have an attorney with him during the interrogation. The Court’s opinion resulted in 5-4. The Court held that the Fifth Amendment’s protection against self incrimination is available in all settings.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a US labor law that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. It was signed by Lyndon B Johnson and this act was an effort to end discrimination in every way, shape and form. Its objective was to end not only racial discrimination, but also sexual, religious, and more. The act ended up being successful for the most part, however, even today there is racism and sexism within the work place. The 24th amendment passed on January 23, 1964 ended the poll tax, making it so much easier for anyone and everyone to vote. The voting rights act was signed by Lyndon B Johnson and it aimed to overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels that prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote under the 15th amendment. Southern states would try to avoid this by large elections, elections by majority rather than plurality, and gerrymandering.
What new knowledge will stick with you?
-The civil rights act was passed over 50 years ago and still isn’t fully being followed.
How is the content you just wrote about impact the world (or even your world) today?
-Now the work place legally can’t be discriminated, making it easier for women to advance in the work place.